“The industrial heartland of France itself” might be your first guess. Perhaps “eastern Germany, or the westernizing European Union nations of Bulgaria or Romania” might be your second guess. And perhaps “an Asian nation, such as China, Indonesia, or the former French colony of Vietnam” might be your third.
Most likely, the American state of South Carolina wouldn’t even make your Top Ten list of guesses. And yet that’s where Michelin is placing its newest tire plant, a development that will transform the state into the tire manufacturing champion of the United States.
It may not be surprising that Michelin and other tire manufacturers would prefer to do business in South Carolina than in the rust belt states of Indiana or Michigan. And yet why would they want to manufacture their products in America at all?
From Snow To Kudzu
Ironically, the most recognizable tire in the United States represents a brand that is actually now owned by Michelin; it’s the gigantic Uniroyal Tire that sits at the side of Interstate 94 just outside of Detroit. The eight story tall billboard was originally used as a Ferris wheel for the 1964 New York World’s Fair, and now serves as the symbol of the Motor City. Uniroyal, however, was acquired by Michelin in 1990; it no longer operates as an independent American company.
Nevertheless, the tire industry hasn’t fully closed all of its American tire factories; instead, it has simply moved south and traded the snowy climes of Michigan for the kudzu-festooned environment of the Palmetto State. Last week, Michelin announced that it would join Bridgestone and Continental Tire by greatly expanding its manufacturing base in South Carolina.
For decades, pessimistic economists have predicted that the American manufacturing sector would continue to dwindle in the face of competition from other nations. Steve Jobs himself, in fact, once told President Barack Obama that high technology Apple manufacturing jobs that have been lost to China aren’t coming back to the United States. And yet Michelin, a European company with no historical ties to the American nation, decided to produce tires — a product far less technologically advanced than iPhones or iPads — in the United States.
That clearly raises the question: why would they decide to do so?
The answer to that question is a simple function of economic competitiveness. Although many other nations maintain far lower labor costs than the United States, and although China surpassed the United States as the world’s largest automobile market two years ago, the American economy remains the largest in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Thus, any tire company that wishes to do business on a global level must develop a strategy to produce and sell its product to American consumers. In order to do so, it must inevitably choose between a pair of options: (a) to both manufacture and sell its tires within the United States, or (b) to manufacture its tires outside of the nation and then import them into it.
Although the second option remains a feasible one, it is burdened by the weight of skyrocketing fuel expenses that drive up the cost impact of transporting finished goods across national borders. When we also consider the effect of a weakening United States dollar and a strengthening Chinese reminbi, as well as the recent willingness of the American labor force to accept lower wages and benefits in the face of high rates of unemployment and continuing economic weakness, we can understand why simple economics makes South Carolina an attractive locale for tire manufacturers.
Growing Old Before Growing Wealthy
Of course, although the United States has maintained an industrial base in tire manufacturing, we cannot assume that America will soon reclaim all of the plants and factories that have been lost to China since President Richard Nixon visited the Communist nation in 1972. Nevertheless, China’s inability to woo tire manufacturers away from the American South does give the United States hope that it will be able to compete with the Asian nation for future manufacturing plants.
The Chinese economy itself is burdened with many handicaps. Its economic growth rate is slowing, its population is aging, and its labor force is demanding wage increases and improvements in working conditions. These demands will inevitably erode its labor cost advantages.
In fact, if its economy hits a wall as Japan’s did during the final decade of the twentieth century, the Chinese government may discover that its population has grown old well before the nation has grown wealthy. Should such a scenario emerge in the future, the American manufacturing industry and its skilled labor force may remain highly capable of competing against their global rivals.